Protein synthesis is a complicated process and a lot can go wrong (for example, DNA mutations can give rise to faulty proteins or enzymes - many diseases result from this). But let me simplify the process and keep referring to the diagram below as we go through the steps. The key player in the synthesis of proteins is DNA. A specific section (or gene) of the DNA molecule (keep in mind this is a huge molecule) is copied and gives rise to a smaller molecule called mRNA. This newly formed mRNA contains the specific code for the protein that is going to be synthesized. This code is recognized by units called tRNA. Each tRNA carries an amino acid (amino acids are the protein building blocks). The amino acid carrying tRNA units attach to specific areas of the mRNA (code subunits) and leave behind an amino acid as it detaches itself from the mRNA code subunits. In turn, the amino acids attach to one another to form a chain of amino acids (also called a polypeptide). This long chain eventually gives rise to a protein once the process is terminated. That's it!
So back to proteins and their role in the sweating process. Research is on-going but a family of proteins called water channel proteins are thought to play a key role in sweating or excessive sweating. One of these proteins is called aquaporin 5. This protein was recently identified in a specific cell type called 'clear cells' found in the sweat producing part of sweat glands.
Having said this, individuals with hyperhidrosis may have overactive or a large number of aquaporin proteins in the clear cells of their sweat glands. Here is the really interesting part of this story: what if we were able to develop a drug that was able to block the aquaporin protein. In theory this would put the brakes on excessive sweating. Hyperhidrosis could be controlled using different doses of this drug, just like a lot of other medical conditions. And so, research into this area of science continues.....